Stan Lee, the architect of the contemporary comic book, has died aged 95.

The creative dynamo who revolutionised comics by introducing human frailties in superheroes such as Spider-Man, The Fantastic Four and The Incredible Hulk, was declared dead on Monday at Cedars-Sinai Medical Centre in Los Angeles, according to Kirk Schenck, a lawyer for Lee’s daughter JC Lee.

As the top writer at Marvel Comics and later as its publisher, Lee revived the industry in the 1960s.

His work offered the costumes and action craved by younger readers while insisting on sophisticated plots, college-level dialogue, satire, science fiction, and even philosophy.

Spider-Man, the Hulk and X-Men were among the Lee creations that went on to become stars of blockbuster films.